School Shootings and Lockdowns: How do Kids Cope?

American Counseling Association: “School Shootings and Student Mental Health: Role of the School Counselor in Mitigating Violence.”

Natalie Barden, 17, student, Newtown, CT.

Melissa Brymer, PsyD, PhD, director, Terrorism and Disaster Program, UCLA-Duke University National Center for Child Traumatic Stress.

CBS News: “There have been more mass shootings than days this year.”

Children’s Defense Fund: “School Shootings Spark Everyday Worries.”

Elsa, student at a New England private school.

Government Accountability Office: “Emergency Management: Improved Federal Coordination Could Better Assist K-12 Schools Prepare for Emergencies.”

Robin Gurwitch, PhD, psychologist; professor, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center.

Jamie Howard, PhD, clinical psychologist, Direct Trauma and Resilience Program, Child Mind Institute.

Danielle Johnson, 16, Newtown High School senior.


Journal of Child and Family Studies: “Rapid rise in mass school shootings in the United States, study shows.”

Justine, Elsa’s mother.

Kaiser Health News: “During 2017-18, An American Student’s Likelihood of Dying In A School Shooting was One in 2 Million.”

Cathy Kennedy-Paine, school psychologist; crisis response team lead, National Association of School Psychologists.

Nancy Kislin, licensed clinical social worker, therapist, Chatham, NJ.

National Association of School Psychologists: “Best Practice Considerations for Schools in Active Shooter and Other Armed Assailant Drills.”

PBS: “111 Years Without Parole.”


Pensacola News Journal: “‘Please check me out before I die:’ Bailey students send heartbreaking texts during lockdown.”

Pew Research Center: “A majority of U.S. teens fear a shooting could happen at their school, and most parents share their concern.”

Rand Corporation: “Mass Shootings: Definitions and Trends.”

Jaclyn Schildkraut, PhD, associate professor of criminal justice, State University of New York, Oswego.

The Almanac: “Blanks used as part of active shooter drill at Bethel Park High School.”


The Washington Post: “What if someone was shooting?”

Ursano, Robert J. Textbook of Disaster Psychiatry.

VOX: “After Sandy Hook we said never again.”

WCTI12: “Superintendent issued a reprimand for active shooter drill involving masked janitor.”

WPXI: “Blanks to Be Fired During Active Shooter Drill at Local School.”

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